প্রাথমিক চিকিৎসা

First Aid

Q. What should be the content of First aid box?

First aid kit should contain the following:

  • Emergency telephone numbers for emergency medical services (EMS) 1092/102/108
  • Sterile gauze pads (dressings) in small and large squares to place over wounds
  • Disinfectants like dettol or savlon
  • Medicines like pain killers (ibuprofen) and antibiotics
  • Roller bandages to hold dressings in place 
  • Adhesive tape
  • Adhesive bandages in assorted sizes
  • Scissors
  • Tweezers
  • Safety pins
  • Antiseptic wipes or soap
  • Thermometer
  • Barrier devices, such as a pocket mask or face shield 

Heavy Bleeding

Q. What should one do if the patient is bleeding heavily?

  • Put pressure on the wound with whatever available to stop or slow down the flow of the blood.
  • Call local emergency numbers or ask for some body help to get to hospital.
  • Keep pressure on the wound until the help arrives.

Q. The person looks pale and feels cold and dizzy. What does this mean?
It means there isn’t enough blood flowing through the body. It can be life threatening because it can very quickly lead to other conditions, such as lack of oxygen in the body’s tissues, heart attack or organ damage. This physical response to an injury or illness is called shock.
If you suspect someone is going into shock, lie him down and lift his feet higher than the rest of his body. Such that the legs are higher than the heart in this position, which helps increase blood flow to their brain and heart.

Q. Should wound be washed?
For minor cuts and grazes, one can wash the wound to remove any dirt. Don't wash a wound that is bleeding heavily. If a wound that is bleeding heavily put under a tap, then all clotting agents will wash away and will bleed more.

Do's and Don'ts for heavy bleeding

Do’s for heavy bleeding 

  • Reassure victim that help is on the way
  • Call ambulance immediately
  • Check victim’s status regularly
  • Use direct pressure to stop bleeding
  • Check to see if victim’s airways are clear
  • If no pulse or respiration, start CPR
  • To prevent transmission of disease, use latex gloves
  • Raise head if bleeding in upper body areas
  • Raise feet if bleeding in lower body areas 

Don'ts for heavy bleeding

  • Don’t move the patient if not required
  • Always suspect “spinal injury” (and don’t move the victim)
  • Don’t set fractures and breaks (simply immobilize the victim)
  • Use “direct” pressure to stop bleeding
  • Don’t remove items imbedded in the eye
  • Don’t use burn ointments
  • Call emergency as soon as possible

Head Injury

Q. How does a cold compress work?
A cold compress reduces the swelling and lessens the pain of the injury.

Q. Can I give them painkillers for their headache?
No. Painkillers are not advised because they can mask the signs and symptoms of a serious head injury.

Q. What is concussion?
If a person suffers a blow to the head, the brain can be shaken inside the skull. This is called concussion. It tends to result in a short loss of consciousness (a few seconds to a few minutes). Most people make a full recovery from a concussion, but occasionally it may become more serious. If you think someone has concussion, call medical emergency.

Q. What are the symptoms of concussion? Symptoms of concussion include:
  • Dizziness
  • Headache
  • Confusion
  • Feeling sick
  • Blurred vision
  • Having no memory of what happened.

Burns

Q. Should I use ice to cool the burn?

No, use water only. Ice may further damage the skin.

Q. Should I put a plaster over a burn to make sure it doesn't get infected?

One should not use any adhesive bandages as it’ll stick to the skin and may cause further damage. Instead the burns should be covered with cling film or a clean plastic bag which will help prevent infection.

Q. If clothes are stuck to the burn, should I try to remove them?

No. Remove any clothing or jewellery near the burned area, but don’t try to remove anything that’s stuck to the burn. This could cause more damage.

Do's for burns

  • Call an ambulance for any serious burns. Burns to children or the elderly, electrical or chemical burns as well as burns to the face or genital area, should be attended to immediately.
  • Apply CPR if the person is not breathing normally.
  • Try to remove clothes and jewellery (from the area that has been burned) only if it is not sticking to the burned area.
  • Hold the burned area under gently running water, for about 10 minutes to half an hour.
  • To prevent corneal damage (in the case of chemical burns to the eyes), immediately irrigate the eyes with water or a saline solution.
  • For second degree burns on the limbs – elevate the limbs higher than the heart.
  • To reduce shock as well as loss of body heat, place clean, dry, non-fluffy cloths lightly over the burn.
  • Cover the person with a cool, wet, lint-free cloth, while waiting for an ambulance or when transporting the person to hospital.








Don'ts for burns

  • Apply lotions, butter, grease or oil to burned area.
  • Use ice, as it may cause frostbite.

Unconsciousness

Q. What should a person do if patient is unconscious?
If a patient is unconscious, his head should be tilted backwards. This is done to avoid tongue to fall backwards and block the airway. Tilting the head backwards and pulling the tongue forward will help to clear the airways.

Q. If I think the person has a back or neck injury, should I still turn them on their side?
If one suspect a back or neck injury, it is still advisable to move them onto their side. The priority is to keep them breathing. Try to keep their spine in a straight line when turning them. If possible, get someone's else to help to turn them.

Q. What should I do if someone is feeling faint?
If someone is feeling faint, advise them to lie down on their back and raise their legs to improve blood flow to the brain. Fainting is caused by a temporary reduction in the flow of blood to the brain and can result in a brief loss of consciousness. A person who has fainted should quickly regain consciousness. If they don't, treat them as an unconscious person.
 

Heart Attack

Do's during heart attack:

  • Patient should be made to  sit down, rest, and try to keep calm.
  • Loosen any tight clothing.
  • Ask if the p